Flat foot causes and how to heal
Causes of flat foot pain
The foot is a complex structure with the mission of bearing the weight of the body when the individual stands and walks. Under normal conditions, the sole is curved, having the shape of a Hemi-cupula open to the inner part, to allow the body weight to be divided by the various support points. In fact, while the anterior part of the foot and the heel zone are in contact with the ground, the middle area of the plantar vault presents a series of longitudinal arches whose curvature is more pronounced in the interior, and by a series of arcs Which only reach the ground at the outer end. These curves, which form during the first years of life, depending on the shape of the bones of the foot, the pressure exerted by the various ligaments and the action of the different muscles.
In the case of flat foot, the arches of the plantar vault are less than average or even absent, which causes the heel to deviate to a greater or lesser extent.
Although the defect can cause many problems, it often resulting from the symptom below
- An excessive lesion of the ligaments of the foot related to constitutional factors, usually hereditary.
- The Change or abnormal in bones and joints ex. Congenital malformations, Fractures, Joint Diseases
- Weakness of the foot and leg muscles (muscular and neurological diseases)
- Particularly in adults, due to being overweight.
It is necessary to emphasize that the flat foot is a very common skeletal deformation, because the human being is not yet, from an anatomical and functional point of view, perfectly adapted, for not having evolved enough to support the weight of the body on the two Feet.
What is the consequence?
In most cases, the defect is bilateral (in both feet), developing during childhood, due to a weakening of the ligaments or the musculature of the feet. At first, the deformation is not very pronounced and may even go unnoticed without causing major pains, except when standing for a long time or after a prolonged walk. At this stage, we can solve through a simple treatment that strengthens the musculature of the feet, since normally there are no significant osteoarticular changes. However, if not properly treated for over the years, the defect may become more pronounced. It causes the foot bones to eventually deformation, which becomes permanent. At this stage, it is usual for long walks or even standing to cause pain in the feet, sometimes radiating to the legs. On the other hand, plantar dome abatement and heel deviation to the outside may have repercussions in other sectors of the skeleton. For example, it may happen that, in an attempt to compensate for the defect, the knees go inward, providing for the deviation of the lower limbs, which is called the valgus knee. If the abduction of the plantar vault is more pronounced in one foot than in the other, it will cause a difference in the length of both limbs which, in addition to giving a more or less evident limp, can cause a compensatory deviation of the spine (scoliosis), with Their particular consequences.
Diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis base on performing a physical examination and some additional tests such as the visualization of the plantar reliefs, a dynamic analysis of locomotion and radiographs. Plantar reliefs are very useful because they reveal the irregular support of the sole in the area that typically touches the ground. On the other hand, the radiographs are essential to determine the existence of alterations in the level of the bones. When the problem manifests itself in childhood, it usually solves through exercises for the musculature of the foot, appropriate footwear and, if necessary, with the use of orthopedic fallen archesinsoles. In most cases, the defect is progressively corrected, eventually acquiring its normal shape after a period.
After the consolidation of the deformation, usually in adulthood, it is no longer possible to recover its normal appearance through manipulations or exercises, and there are only two options, depending on the case: the use of orthopedic insoles or surgery.
The surgical intervention is performed, only when the bone deformation causes intense pain or when the deformation is accompanied by a noticeable limp.
The doctor responds
It seems to me that my 2-year-old son has flat feet. Should I see a pediatrician for necessary treatment?
Firstly, you must know that up to 2 years of age it is normal to have a certain degree of flat foot. The foot takes a few years to acquire its definitive form. Also, since the baby has thick feet, the subcutaneous adipose tissue forms a thick layer that makes it difficult to observe the plantar vault. Therefore, the best way to notice the curvature of the soles of the feet is to examine it when the baby stands on the tip of the feet. Another way of looking at the curve of the plantar dome is by asking the child to stand on his heels, with his toes separated from the ground, which ‘s hard to do if he has flat feet. Most likely your fears are unjustified, but the best way to be perfectly rested is to see a pediatrician since flat foot correction will be much easier and efficient the sooner the problem is detected.
High Arches Foot
High arches foot is the opposite defect to the flat foot and is characterized by an exaggerated plantar vault. Its origin can be very diverse, since in some cases it is a congenital malformation, while in others it is caused by neurological problems (for example, a sequel of poliomyelitis) or by osteoarticular problems.
The defect manifests itself progressively and is only evident at about age 10 or 12 years. Contrary to what typically happens, while walking, the child supports the tip of the foot first, and only afterward. The heel, which disturbs the walking and running, cause the pain at the points on which the weight impact.
Although initially, it is possible to halt the evolution of the problem through physiotherapy and the use of specific orthopedic elements. When the disease progresses severely, we can only solve through surgical intervention.